Argentina is a sovereign state, and organized as a representative federal republic situated in the southeast end of America. Its territory is divided into 23 provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the nation's capital and seat of the federal government. Its nearly 40 million people averaged indices of human development, income per capita, economic growth and quality of life, which are among the highest in Latin America. According to the World Bank, its nominal GDP is the 30th largest in the world, but if one considers the total purchasing power GDP transform the country into the 23 th largest economy in the world. Argentina currently is classified as an upper middle income country or as an emerging market by the World Bank.
By extension, 2,780,400 km ², is the second largest state in South America, fourth in the Americas and eighth in the world, considering only the land area subject to its effective sovereignty. If we consider the Malvinas, South Georgia, South Sandwich and Aurora (British Overseas Territories claimed by Argentina), over the Antarctic claimed the area south of 60 ° S, known as Antarctica Argentina (which includes the islands of Orkney South and South Shetland), the total would amount to 3,761,274 km ². However, this claim is frozen in accordance with the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty, without his signature constitutes a waiver.
His American mainland, which covers much of the South, bounded on the north by Bolivia and Paraguay, with Brazil to the northeast, west and south by Chile and Uruguay to the east and the Atlantic Ocean.
On May 25, 1810 he was deposed the last Spanish viceroy who ruled from Buenos Aires, organized the first Governing Board, and the July 9, 1816 in Tucumán was formally proclaimed its independence as a sovereign and free country.